General Information
Capela da Senhora da Livração de Fandinhães  
See Map
  • Name: Chapel of Our Lady of Deliverance of Fandinhães
  • Typology: Chapel
  • Classification: Public Interest Building, by Decree 660/2012, DR 215, of 7th November 2012
  • Municipality: Marco de Canaveses
  • Visiting Hours: By appointment   
  • Support Services:
  • Telephone : 255 810 706 / 918 116 488   
  • Fax: 255 810 709   
  • E-Mail: rotadoromanico@valsousa.pt   
  • Web: www.rotadoromanico.com   
  • Location:
    Rua da Nossa Senhora da Livração, Paços de Gaiolo, Marco de Canaveses, Porto.
  • Geographic Coordinates: 41° 6' 22.95" N / 8° 7' 45.93" O 
History
History
Ouvir

Chapel of Fandinhães (Photo: © SIPA – IHRU)Commonly known as Chapel of Fandinhães, this building was once a private church building that belonged to an archdeacon from Viseu, whose lineage held its patronage, in 1258. However, nowadays only the chancel of this primitive Church remains.

Apparently, the evolution of local parishes would have been the main reason for its current state: the Church was located in the small parish of Fonte de Cova, which included the hamlets of Fandinhães, Ambrões, Mourilhermo and Paços de Gaiolo.

The facts that the hamlet of Fandinhães is located on a mountain - 500 meters above sea level -, that there was a growing population in the hamlet of Paços de Gaiolo - which stood on a milder and more central place -, and that the Hermitage of Saint Clement was built, may have caused the loss of importance of Fonte de Cova in favour of Paços de Gaiolo.

Although some authors refer 1873 as the year when the Church's nave was dismantled, the fact is that in 1864 it was already mutilated, with its remaining structure (chancel) showing a state of decay.

Since it was ruined, it began being dismantled and its stone was reused to extend the current parish church. However, there is the perception, among several researchers, that the Church built during the Romanesque period would not have been fully completed.

We may refer what has been previously described as one of the possible causes for its non-completion: the villages located at a higher altitude, such as Fandinhães, would have begun to lose their interest from the Romanesque period onwards, in favour of other villages located in low altitude areas, close to watercourses, encouraging the displacement of populations to these places and, in this particular case, to Paços de Gaiolo. However, there is still no concrete evidence to back up this thesis.

Chronology
Ouvir

1258 - Fandinhães was a Church patronaged by the descendants of an archdeacon from Viseu;

13th Century (2nd half) - Construction of Church of Fandinhães, taking its remaining Romanesque traces into account;

1302 - The relatives and patrons of the Church of Saint Martin donate the right of patronage to the bishop of Porto, D. Geraldo Domingues (1300-1308);

16th century (early) - Manufacture of the Mudéjar tiles found in the main altarpiece's frontal;

1690 - First record of the Hermitage of Saint Clement in Paços de Gaiolo;

1758 - The population of the parish of Paços de Gaiolo was already concentrated mostly on the southern and western slopes of the mountain of Montedeiras;
- The patronage of Fandinhães was in the hands of the Admirals of the Kingdom;
- The Church of Fandinhães is still referred to as Saint Martin's;

Late 18th century - Saint Clement and Saint Martin are already a single parish;

1864 - The Church's nave had already been dismantled;

1912 - The collection and Chapel of Fandinhães were handed to the Portuguese Republic;

1924 - The corporation in charge of the Catholic worship requested the Chapel from the State;

2010 - Integration of the Chapel of Our Lady of Deliverance of Fandinhães in the Route of the Romanesque;

2012 - Classification of the Chapel of Fandinhães as Public Interest Building;

2015  - Archaeological surveys in the churchyard of the Chapel,  under the scope of the Route of the Romanesque.

Specialities
Architecture
Ouvir

Standing 500 meters above sea level and canonically oriented, the chancel is all that remains from the primitive parish church. Besides a rectangular apse, this church would have originally been composed by a single nave, which was dismantled in the 19th century. With this dismantling, the apse was adapted to work as a Chapel by closing the chancel arch with a door, thus turning it into the main entrance.

Currently, in the churchyard, we find two ashlars that, by their featuring shapes, would give body to a cornice on little arches.

On the observer's left - which corresponded to the Gospel side of the triumphal arch - a capital represents the topic of serpents, whose single head appears in the capital's corner.

On the Epistle side, there are two Atlantean-shaped figures on the edges, resting on protruding leaves.

The existence of dihedral toruses in the crevices of the old apse shows us the journey of shapes and artists which characterised the Middle Ages and, in particular, the Romanesque style.

Still in the crevices, we highlight the richly ornamented capitals, either featuring a human and vegetal or an animal figure, showing the influence of the typical Romanesque style from Porto and Braga, respectively.

In terms of corbels, most of them are flat, thus indicating a late chronology. However, on the north side, some of them show geometric or human ornamentations, while on the opposite side, the human subject is also used.

In the space that once belonged to the nave, two slabs identify two graves: the larger one is engraved with a rather stereotyped sword (blade, straight guard and hilt), while on the other slab, which is smaller, a simple cross was carved.

Inside the Chapel, the back wall is occupied by the main altarpiece, made in gilded woodwork on white background and divided into three panels defined by twisted columns.

In each panel we have the image of Our Lady of Deliverance, at the centre, flanked by Saint Blaise, on the left, and Saint Martin, on the right.

Judging by the remaining traces, this Church of Fandinhães would have certainly been quite an elaborate construction, and is now a building worth visiting for its uniqueness and originality.

Archeology
Ouvir

In 2015, there were archaeological surveys in the churchyard of the Chapel of Fandinhães, conducted by the School for Vocational Education in Archaeology (located in Freixo, Marco de Canaveses).

The archaeological works in question were intended primarily to retrieve archaeological information that would provide additional data to the historiographical debate on the primitive configuration of the temple.

Specifically, their aim was to confirm the configuration of the nave's foundations, whose existence is only guessed thanks to the ruins of the walls adjacent to the chancel.

The archaeological intervention allowed observing a medieval stratification preserved under a set of very significant human interventions made over the years, which demonstrate the dynamic historical evolution of the Chapel's surroundings between the medieval and the modern periods, but which were also likely responsible for the ablation of important levels of the stratification, as well as for the deterioration of the nave's ruins.

From the stratigraphic set, we highlight the identification of:
(1) a set of recent embankments that demonstrate the contemporary evolution of the site, particularly the reconfiguration of the large levelled platform built in front of the chancel;

(2) a set of recent infrastructures related to the site's public lighting;

(3) a necropolis used in the modern and medieval periods, related to the Church of Fandinhães, located in the interior of the nave and the areas surrounding the nave and the chancel;

(4) the foundations of the nave's north and south walls, in the continuation of what is currently visible on the surface;

(5) a stony base built with boulders and blocks of granite and quartzite pebbles in order to create a levelled area to support the temple.

As for the collection, the archaeological works allowed identifying mainly fragments of construction-related ceramics, namely fragments of tubed roof tiles.

In more recent levels, already dug up, it was possible to retrieve fragments of Hispanic-Arabic tiles, similar to the ones used in the chancel's altar.

It was also possible to identify fragments of 17th- and 18th-century faiences and, in the earliest levels, medieval gray-paste ceramics with plastic or incised decorations.

Five coins ("ceitis") and a religious medal, typologically associated with the 16th century and depicting Saint Paul and Saint Benedict, were recovered in a secondary position.

Gallery
  • No results were found.
Know More
Bibliography

ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de - História da arte em Portugal: o românico. Lisboa: Publicações Alfa, 1986.

ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de - Influências francesas na arte românica Portuguesa. In COLLOQUE HISTOIRE DU PORTUGAL, HISTOIRE EUROPÉENNE, Paris, 1986 - Actes. Paris: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian - Centro Cultural Português, 1987. Colóquio realizado a 22 e 23 de maio de 1986.

ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de - Território paroquial de Entre-Douro-e-Minho: sua sacralização. Nova Renascença. Vol. 1, n.º 2 (1981).

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor; RESENDE, Nuno - Capela da Senhora da Livração de Fandinhães: Marco de Canaveses. In ROSAS, Lúcia, coord. cient. – Rota do Românico. Lousada: Centro de Estudos do Românico e do Território, 2014. Vol. 1, p. 377-394.

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor - A historiografia da arquitetura da época românica em Portugal. Porto: Universidade do Porto, 2010a. Tese de doutoramento em história da arte portuguesa apresentada à Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 2010. Texto policopiado.

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor - Igreja de São Pedro de Rates. In PÉREZ GONZÁLEZ, José María - Arte românica em Portugal. Aguiar de Campoo: Fundación Santa Maria la Real – C.E.R./Fundación Rámon Areces, 2010b. p. 213-228.

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor - Sé de Braga. In PÉREZ GONZÁLEZ, José María - Arte românica em Portugal. Aguiar de Campoo: Fundación Santa Maria la Real – C.E.R./Fundación Rámon Areces, 2010c. p. 41-50.

CARVALHO, Manuel Machado de - [Memória paroquial de] Fandinhães [Manuscrito]. 1758. Acessível em ANTT, Lisboa. PT-TT-MPRQ-15-17.

COSTA, A. Carvalho da - Corografia portugueza e descripçam topografica do famoso reyno de Portugal… Lisboa: Off. de Valentim da Costa Deslandes, 1706.

COSTA, Avelino Jesus da - O bispo D. Pedro e a organização da diocese de Braga. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, 1959. p. 531.

CUNHA, Rodrigo da - Catalogo e historia dos bispos do Porto. Porto: João Rodriguez, 1623.

DAVID, Pierre - Études sur la Galice et le Portugal du VIe au XIe siècle. [Coimbra]: Institut Français au Portugal, 1947.

HERCULANO, Alexandre, dir. - Portugalliae monumenta historica : o saeculo octavo post christum usque ad quintumdecimum: inquisiciones. Lisboa: Tipografia Nacional, 1936.

MARTINS, Manuela - "As vilas do norte de Portugal" de Alberto Sampaio. Revista de Guimarães. N.º 102 (1992) 389-409.

MECO, José - O azulejo em Portugal. Lisboa: Publicações Alfa, 1989.

MONTEIRO, Manuel - S. Pedro de Rates: com uma introdução àcerca da architectura românica em Portugal. Porto: Imprensa Nacional, 1908.

MOREIRA, Domingos A. - Freguesias da diocese do Porto: elementos onomásticos alti-medievais. Boletim Cultural da Câmara Municipal do Porto. Vol. 2 (1984) 7-86.

NUÑO GONZÁLEZ, Jaime - Detrás de lo artístico: otras formas de mirar el edificio románico. In Perfiles del arte románico. Aguilar de Campoo: Fundación Santa María la Real – C.E.R., 2002.

NUÑO GONZÁLEZ, Jaime - Hacia una visión de la iconografia sexual: escenas procaces y figuras obscenas. In Poder y seducción de la imagen românica: atas VII curso de iniciación al románico. Aguilar de Campoo: Fundación Santa Maria la Real, 2006. p. 192-226.

PORTARIA n.º 660. D.R. 2.ª Série. 215 (2012-11-07).

PORTUGAL. Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território - IRHU/Arquivo ex-DGEMN/DREMN. Ministério das Obras Públicas, Distrito do Porto [processo digitalizado].

PORTUGAL. Ministério das Finanças – Secretaria-geral – Arquivo. Comissão Jurisdicional dos Bens Cultuais, Porto, Marco de Canaveses, Arrolamento dos Bens Cultuais, Paços de Gaiolo.

RESENDE, Nuno - A paróquia do Santíssimo Salvador de Pereiros. In FERNANDES, A. Silva - Pereiros: São João da Pesqueira. [S.l]: Associação dos Amigos de Pereiros, 2011.

ROSAS, Lúcia Maria Cardoso; SOTOMAYOR-PIZARRO, J. A. de - Território, senhores e património na Idade Média. In AGUIAR, Alexandre, coord. - Marco de Canaveses: perspectivas. Marco de Canaveses: Câmara Municipal, 2009. ISBN 978-972-95492-7-4. Vol. 1, p. 81-116.

SAMPAIO, Alberto - Estudos históricos e económicos: as vilas do norte de Portugal. Lisboa: Editorial Vega, 1979.

Downloads