General Information
Igreja de São Tiago de Valadares  
See Map
  • Name: Church of Saint James of Valadares
  • Typology: Church
  • Classification: Public Interest Monument, by Decree 438/2012, DR 179, of 14th September 2012
  • Municipality: Baião
  • Patron Saint´s Day: Saint James - 25th July 
  • Worship Hours: Saturday - 4 pm/5 pm (winter/summer) or sunday - 9 am, alternates weekly 
  • Visiting Hours: By appointment   
  • Support Services:
  • Telephone : 255 810 706 / 918 116 488   
  • Fax: 255 810 709   
  • E-Mail: rotadoromanico@valsousa.pt   
  • Web: www.rotadoromanico.com   
  • Location:
    Lugar da Igreja, Valadares, Baião, Porto.
  • Geographic Coordinates: 41° 8' 40.24" N / 7° 58' 58.61" O 
History
History
Ouvir

Church of Valadares (Photo: © SIPA – IHRU)Bound to the medieval land of Baião and its masters from early on, both at the ecclesiastical and the secular level, Valadares reveals in its toponym the importance of geography in the humanization of the territory: a mild valley which allowed the creation of living and vicinity at 500 metres of altitude.

In this aspect, the actual deployment of the Church itself reveals the intrinsic connection of the parochialization with the advanced plotting.

The “Inquirições” [administrative enquiries] of 1258 document the control of the Church by a group of eight individuals certainly linked among themselves by kin ties or marriage bonds. And when asked whether the king had rights over the said Church, the parish priest, Pedro Soares, said not knowing.

Therefore, far from the arm of the monarch, manorial domain remained here until quite late, despite the fact that this patron saint has been associated with the tradition of being a passing place.

In the Catalogue of the Bishops of Porto, of 1623, states that the Church possessed the Blessed Sacrament (its isolation so required) and was a profitable abbey by 300,000 réis [former Portuguese currency unit].

In 1706 the abbey's income was of 450,000 réis [former Portuguese currency unit] and its parishioners were distributed by 120 dwellings. The author of this information, Father António da Costa Carvalho, further informs us that Valadares was part of the heritage of the Houses of Baião and Marquises of Arronches - information which, moreover, aligns with the answers of abbot Ricardo Feliz Barroso Pereira, in 1758.

Even with the profound changes of the 19th century, Valadares no longer gravitated around Baião, carrying on as a parish of its own.

The Church of Saint James of Valadares has suffered deep changes throughout its existence, and today, it embodies the medieval language of outwardly smooth vestments with a Baroque grammar, which, inside, leaves its mark on the entire space.

The medieval space was lined with altarpieces in polychrome and gilt wood. The taste for the Baroque filled the small Church with brightness and colour, highlighting the quality of the side and main altarpieces and the cruise arch. The latter receives, in a painting, the patron saint of the Church, flanked by two Dominican saints: Saint Gonzalo and Saint Vicent Ferrer.

The interior of this Church dedicated to Saint James, the Greater, is, therefore, a good testimony of how easily a Romanesque Church modernizes its aesthetics, adapting it to new tastes and the different liturgies.

Although hidden by the modern mobile setting, fine examples of frescoes, from the late 15th century, may be appreciated: on the back wall of the nave, the mural composition would create a fake altarpiece composed of four separate panels with depictions of Saint Catherine of Alexandria, Pietá, Saint James and Saint Barbara; and on the side walls, what would likely be Saint Paul and a scene that we can guess is the representation of Hell on which stands a set of fantastic creatures, of a frankly popular taste: a cynocephalus devil and a tow-faced figure with two horns, a strange black bird with the head of a rooster and the beak of a goose.

Chronology
Ouvir

1188 - Inscription date reused in an ashlar in the chancel;

1258 - The Church of Saint James of Valadares is referred to as a private or family church;

13th century (final) - Suggested chronology for the edification of the Church of Valadares;

15th century (mid) - João Camelo de Sousa, of the family and social circle of the lords of Baião, commissions the campaign for the murals in the Church of Valadares;

1623 - The Church of Valadares featured a sacrarium;

18th century - Valadares was part of the heritage of the Houses of Baião and Marquises of Arronches;

18th century (1st half) - Suggested chronology for the production of the altarpiece, in national baroque-style;

1890, September 20th – 250,000 réis [former Portuguese currency unit] were granted by royal initiative for the repair of various sections of the Church of Valadares;

1989, December 13th - The process for the classification of the Church of Valadares is opened;

2010 - Integration of the Church of Saint James of Valadares in the Route of the Romanesque;

2011, November 17th - Announcement regarding the draft decision on the classification as Monument of Public Interest and setting of the respective special protection area of the Church of St. James of Valadares;

2012, September 14th - The Church of Valadares is classified as Public Interest Monument;

2014-2015 - Works for the general conservation of the Church, mostly at the levels of the roofs and external walls, under the scope of the Route of the Romanesque; restoration of the altarpiece and mural paintings.

Specialities
Architecture
Ouvir

The small Church of Valadares fits within the peripheral designations of “românico de resistência” [resistance Romanesque] or rural Gothic, late specimen of a building marked by the challenges of the Middle Ages: few resources, distance from major centres, manorial and ecclesiastical interferences, among others.

Maybe that explains the fact that in the rebuilding of the chancel, which included an inscription dated of the Era of 1226 (year 1188), hypothetical reminiscence of the previous building.
Plan of the Church of Valadares

Consisting of a single nave and square chancel, the latter narrower and lower than the nave, the Church of Saint James features a vernacular or "rustic" structure due to the shape and arrangement of its ashlars, of different sizes and which convey a certain irregularity to its walls.

The main façade is topped by a double-bell tower, only ripped by a portal inscribed on the thickness of the wall, which, by its arrangements, confirms the late nature of its construction, around the 13th century.
Main façade of the Church of Valadares

Slightly broken, the outer archivolt is smooth and with somewhat bevelled edges. On the opposite, the inner one is dotted with pearls in the chamfer, motif that repeats itself at the level of the imposts.

Also the portal of the south side façade confirms this thesis, because it consists of a single smooth archivolt, embedded in the thickness of the wall.
South façade of the Church of Valadares

The relief sculptures that, in the main façade, mark the beginning of the gable have been topic of discussion: the left side, a hare or rabbit, perhaps symbolizing a community desire of fertility and, on the other side, an animal that has not yet been identified.
North façade of the Church of Valadares

It is in the chancel and in the north façade that we find the primitive modillions of this Church, featuring ornaments composed of rollers, balls and a couple of somewhat rough figures.

The late nature of these modillions is witnessed by the difficult adequacy of the sculpted elements to the original shape of this supporting element.

Noteworthy is a mason's mark, showing a kind of crosier, which appears repeatedly in several ashlars of the chancel, manifesting, by its own shape and design, a late chronology.

On the north side façade, the persistence of protruding corbels halfway up the ornaments indicates the previous existence of a porched structure.

Restoration and Enhancement
Ouvir

The information about the conservation works carried out in this Church is scarce. However, in a report provided by the Royal Palace, on September 20th, 1890, it was decided to grant an allowance of two hundred and fifty thousand réis [former Portuguese currency unit], "paid in Lisbon to a representative of the Local Council" of the Parish of São Tiago de Valadares, municipality of Baião, "for the repair of several premises of its mother church". However, the fact is that we do not know what kind of works were carried out.

We only have information about an inspection of the Church's roofs carried out in 2006, which led to roof tile replacements and to the application of the "onduline" system.

Since it became part of the Route of the Romanesque in 2010, the Church of Valadares was the subject of a study on mural painting conservation; it was also the subject of a project whose main goal involves the building's conservation, protection and valorisation, focusing on the roofs of the nave, chancel and sacristy, on the external openings and on a series of works aimed at its external area, namely its immediate surroundings, from which we highlight the replacement of the aerial electrical installations by underground installations.

Gallery
  • No results were found.
Know More
Bibliography

AFONSO, Luís Urbano - A pintura mural portuguesa entre o gótico internacional e o fim do renascimento: formas, significados, funções. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian/Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, 2009.

ALDAZÁBAL, José - Dicionário elementar da liturgia. Prior Velho: Paulinas, [2007]. ISBN 978-972-751-863-0.

ALMEIDA, António José de - Iconografia insólita, em Aveiro: santos alados. In CONGRESSO INTERNACIONAL DO BARROCO, 2, Porto – Actas. Porto: Universidade do Porto/Faculdade de Letras - Departamento de Ciências e Técnicas do Património, 2003. p. 111-118.

ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de - Arquitectura românica de Entre Douro e Minho. Porto: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 1978. Tese de doutoramento apresentada à Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto.

ARQUIVO DISTRITAL DO PORTO (ADP). Paroquiais, Valadares, livros mistos.

AZEVEDO, Carlos Moreira, coord. - Roteiro do culto Antoniano na diocese do Porto. Porto: Fundação Manuel Leão, 1996. ISBN 972-971-55-0-5.

BARROCA, Mário - Epigrafia medieval portuguesa: 862-1422. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2000.

BESSA, Paula - Pintura mural do fim da Idade Média e do início da Idade Moderna no norte de Portugal. Braga: Universidade do Minho, 2008.

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor; RESENDE, Nuno – Igreja de são Tiago de Valadares: Baião. In ROSAS, Lúcia, coord. cient. – Rota do Românico. Lousada: Centro de Estudos do Românico e do Território, 2014. Vol. 2, p. 281-308.

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor - A historiografia da arquitectura da época românica em Portugal. Porto: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 2010. Tese de doutoramento em história da arte portuguesa apresentada à Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 2010. Texto policopiado.

BRITO, Pedro - Patriciado urbano quinhentista: as famílias dominantes do Porto: 1500-1580. Porto: Arquivo Histórico/Câmara Municipal do Porto, 1997.

CHEVALIER, Jean; GHEERBRANT, Alain - Dicionário dos símbolos. Lisboa: Editorial Teorema, 1994. ISBN 972-695-215-8.

CORREIA, Vergílio - Monumentos e esculturas: seculos III-XVI. Lisboa: Livraria Ferin, 1924.

COSTA, A. Carvalho da - Corografia portugueza e descripçam topografica do famoso reyno de Portugal... Lisboa: Off. de Valentim da Costa Deslandes, 1706.

DIAS, Pedro - A arquitetura gótica portuguesa. Lisboa: Editorial Estampa, 1994.

GAIO, Felgueiras Manuel José da Costa - Nobiliário de famílias de Portugal. [Braga]: Agostinho de Azevedo Meirelles/Domingos de Araújo Affonso, 1938-1941.

HERCULANO, Alexandre, dir.- Portugalliae monumenta historica : o saeculo octavo post christum usque ad quintumdecimum: inquisiciones. Lisboa: Academia Scientiarum, 1867.

MARQUES, José - Património régio na cidade do Porto e seu termo nos finais do século XV. Revista de História. Vol. 3 (1980) 73-98.

MARQUES, Pedro José - Dicionário abreviado das oito provincias dos Reinos de Portugal e Algarves. Porto: Typographia Commercial, 1853.

MEDINA, João - Deus, pátria e família: ideologia e mentalidade do Salazarismo. In MEDINA, João - História de Portugal dos tempos Pré-Históricos aos nossos dias. Amadora: Ediclube, 1993. Vol. 12.

MOREIRA, Domingos A. - Freguesias da diocese do Porto: elementos onomásticos alti-medievais. Boletim Cultural da Câmara Municipal do Porto. Vol. 7-8 (1989-1990) 7-119.

PEREIRA, Ricardo Feliz Barroso - [Memória Paroquial de] Valadares [Manuscrito]. 1758. Acessível em ANTT, Lisboa. PT-TT-MPRQ/38/77.

PORTUGAL. Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território - IRHU/Arquivo ex-DGEMN/DREMN. Cx. 3216/2 - Correspondência Igrejas do Concelho de Baião, 1864 a 1890.

PORTUGAL. Ministério das Finanças – Secretaria-geral - Arquivo. Comissão Jurisdicional dos Bens Cultuais, Baião. Arrolamento dos Bens Cultuais, Valadares, [Cabral, Afonso Vitorino de Barbosa -Arrolamento dos Bens Cultuais de Valadares].

RÉAU, Louis - Iconografia del arte cristiano: iconografia de los santos: de la P a la Z - repertorios. Barcelona: Ediciones del Serbal, 2002. ISBN 84-7628-223-0.

ROSAS, Lúcia Maria Cardoso - Monumentos pátrios: a arquitectura religiosa medieval – património e restauro: 1835-1928. Porto: Universidade do Porto, 1995. Tese de doutoramento em história da arte em Portugal apresentada à Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto. 2 vols. Texto policopiado.

VASCONCELOS, Joaquim de; ABREU, Marques - A arte românica em Portugal: texto de Joaquim de Vasconcellos com reproducções seleccionadas e executas por Marques Abreu. Porto: Edições Illustradas Marques Abreu, 1918.

Downloads