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Igreja de Santa Maria Maior de Tarouquela  
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  • Name: Church of Saint Mary Major of Tarouquela
  • Typology: Church
  • Classification: National Monument by Decree 34 452, DG 59 of 20th March 1945
  • Municipality: Cinfães
  • Patron Saint´s Day: Saint Mary - 5th August 
  • Worship Hours: Saturday - 3.30 pm; sunday - 9 am (winter); saturday - 5.30 pm; sunday - 9 am (summer) 
  • Visiting Hours: By appointment   
  • Support Services:
  • Telephone : 255 810 706 / 918 116 488   
  • Fax: 255 810 709   
  • E-Mail: rotadoromanico@valsousa.pt  
  • Web: www.rotadoromanico.com   
  • Location:
    Lugar do Mosteiro, Tarouquela, Cinfães, Viseu.
  • Geographic Coordinates: 41° 4' 10.83" N / 8° 11' 16.55" O 
History
History
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Church of Tarouquela (Photo: © SIPA – IHRU)Nowadays, the historical importance of Tarouquela is only shown in the remnant Church, which was part of one of the first female monasteries of the Benedictine Order built to the south of the Douro.

Its origin, in the mid-12th century, associates this monastic house to a couple, Ramiro Gonçalves and his wife D. Ouruana Nunes, who acquired a property that used to belong to Egas Moniz, King Afonso Henriques' tutor, and his wife.

In this house they founded a Monastery that was recognized by the bishop of Lamego in 1171 and confirmed by their descendants. Although, initially, Tarouquela followed the Rule of Saint Augustine, with D. Urraca Viegas, the daughter of Egas Moniz de Ortigosa, the habit was changed and the nuns began to profess the Benedictine Rule.

Run by dynasties of abbesses, the history of this Monastery crosses its paths with the one of the region's most notable families. The influence of the Resendes ceased to be felt almost simultaneously in Tarouquela and in Cárquere (Resende), where Vasco Martins de Resende, the nephew of abbess D. Aldonça, was buried; she is mentioned in the transition from the 13th to the 14th century and was one of the most active abbesses with a long ruling period, which allowed her to make use of assets within her family circle.

It is natural that, with the end of the Resendes' influence, the office would fall into the hands of family members and patrons of the Monastery, even if only temporarily. In the 14th century, we find Tarouquela in the hands of the Pintos, from Ferreiros de Tendais. From the 15th century onwards, the nieces succeed their aunts, keeping the power within a family that was closely related to Porto's urban elites.

In the 15th century, the Monastery was already showing some signs of decline. In addition to its intrinsically family nature, its physical isolation and size, there were some noticeable signs of neglect by the Tarouquela nuns. The abbesses often broke their celibacy vows and acted according to their own personal interests.

In 1535, an alderwoman, the abbess of Arouca, D. Maria de Melo, moved to Tarouquela to calm the turmoil resulting from the royal will to extinguish the Monastery and prepare the transition to the Monastery of Benedict of Hail-Mary, in Porto, in 1536. This Monastery, founded in 1514 by King D. Manuel I (k. 1495-1521), was built to gather nuns from different female institutes, such as Tarouquela, in a single place.

Chronology
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1134 - Prince D. Afonso Henriques donates the manor of Tarouquela to Egas Moniz and his wife; its (extensive) limits show the territory's importance and value; nevertheless, in the same year, they traded the manor for a horse with Ramiro Gonçalves and his wife D. Ouruana Nunes;

1162 - According to Viterbo, at least from this year onwards, there was a Convent in Tarouquella, in which the Rule of Saint Augustine was kept;

1171 - The bishop of Lamego recognizes the existence of the Monastery, founded by Ramiro Gonçalves, dubbed "o Quartela", and D. Ouruana;

1185 or 1187 - The founders' children and grandchildren confirmed the donation of their church, of prior foundation, to the Monastery, endorsing it to D. Urraca Viegas, who was also the founders' granddaughter, for her to rule it spiritually and temporally;

1187-1194 - With the support of her relatives, the abbess managed to change the habit in Tarouquela;

Late 12th century/early 13th century - Construction of the Church of the Monastery of Tarouquela;

1214 - Possible consecration or completion of the chancel, according to an inscription identified by Mário Barroca;

1224 - Chartering of Tarouquela, by action of King D. Sancho I;

1232 - According to the news of the foundation of the Monastery of Tarouquela, drafted in the 17th century, D. Urraca would have donated all her possessions to the Monastery;

1291-1340 - The office of D. Aldonça Martins de Resende was one of the most active in Tarouquela;

1312 - It was confirmed that the archbishop of Santiago had no rights over the crops due to the Church of Tarouquela;

1315 - D. Rodrigo, bishop of Lamego, ended the dispute he had begun with Tarouquela;

14th century (Second half) - The Monastery of Tarouquela enters the Pintos' sphere of influence;

From the 15th century onwards - There is an actual permanence of certain families at the head of the Monastery of Tarouquela;

1481-1495 - Construction of the Chapel of Saint John the Baptist, during the reign of King D. João II and due to a bond established by Vasco Lourenço;

Around 1500 - Design of the image of the Virgin of the Milk;

1514 - King D. Manuel I orders the foundation of a Monastery in Porto to incorporate the female institutes of Tarouquela, Tuías, Vairão, Vila Cova and Rio Tinto;

1535 - An alderwoman moves to Tarouquela, to calm the turmoil resulting from the royal will to extinguish the Monastery and prepare the transition to the Monastery of Saint Benedict of Hail-Mary, in Porto;

1536 - The nuns of Tarouquela are transferred to the Convent in Porto; the external administration of Tarouquela from this Monastery begins;

17th-18th century - Expansion works in the chancel of Tarouquela;

1713 - Of the former monastic complex of Tarouquela, only the parish lands and residence are documented;

1758 - There were almost no traces of the monastic space;

1945 - Listing of the Church of Tarouquela as a National Monument;

1970s - Conduction of major restoration works in the Church of Tarouquela, under the responsibility of DGEMN – Direção Geral dos Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais [General Directorate for Buildings and National Monuments];

2010 - Integration of the Church of Saint Mary Major in the Route of the Romanesque;

2014-2015 - Works for the general conservation of the Church, mostly at the levels of the roofs and external walls, under the scope of the Route of the Romanesque.

Specialities
Architecture
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The history of Tarouquela provides an excellent insight into the artistic traces left by the different periods in this once monastic Church. Although the foundation of the Monastery of Saint Mary of Tarouquela dates back to the 12th century, its Romanesque traces lead us to a later chronology, likely from the early 13th century.

The architecture and ornamentation of this Romanesque Church illustrate the best kind of work made in this region. The sculpture shown on the portals, crevices, capitals, corbels, tympanum and chevet, attest an artistic richness that, above all, intends to convey a symbolic message.

Part of this sculpture is intended to have a pedagogical mission, i.e., to convey God's message: in Medieval Times, the church was associated with the earthly image of the House of God. In this sense, the Church of Tarouquela clearly demonstrates, through its shapes and sculpture, the catechetical mission that Romanesque buildings attained in our territory.

The ornamentation of the chevet's sculpture, both outside and inside, embodies one of the finest examples of Romanesque architecture within the Portuguese territory. Despite having undergone expansion works in the Modern Period (17th/18th centuries), in order to receive the main altar, it takes advantage of Romanesque stonework, as evidenced by the abundance of stonemasons' initials.

Plans of the Church of Tarouquela (Photo: © SIPA – IHRU)

Inside, we should highlight the presence of Benedictine themed sculpture - animals with an apotropaic function (protection from evil); two men with a single head; the serpents; the mermaid; a man between two birds; the palmettes from Braga and the geometric ornamentation.

Another interesting element is the Romanesque consecration altar and its corresponding tabernacle, embedded in one of the chancel's blind arcades, on the Epistle side. The triumphal arch's decoration should also be highlighted, as it features the depiction of outraged animals.

The corbels are also unique and represent human weaknesses such as, for example, the exhibitionist, that is, a squatting man holding his genitals. On the left elevation, there is a female representation with exposed genitalia.

However, what has been attracting the most attention is the main portal's layout. Its composition reflects a very complex ornamental programme, being considered as one of the most curious examples of Portuguese Romanesque sculpture.
Main façade of the Church of Tarouquela (Photo: © SIPA – IHRU)

In this space we must highlight the work of the capitals, but it's the so-called dogs of Tarouquela that surprise us the most. They are placed on the imposts, on each side of the portal and may be described as a pair of four-legged animals with nude human bodies hanging from their jaws, attached by the legs. With a clear apotropaic nature, they show a desire to ward off evil forces.

Adjoining the Church's right elevation we find the funerary Chapel of Saint John the Baptist (the current sacristy), which was established by Vasco Lourenço in the late 15th century.
South façade of the Church of Tarouquela (Photo: © SIPA – IHRU)

Until 1980, we could still find some graves inside the Church, which we may currently see on the outside. We do not know who the buried people are, however, some symbols found in the sepulchral lids give us some clues such as, for example, the representation of a sword and an abbess' crosier.

Although the current image of the Church's interior is mainly a result of restoration works carried out in the 1970s, the truth is that the building once had five altars. Today, we may only see the main altar and another one, located on the nave's left side, both fitting into the Baroque aesthetics.

In the collateral altars (stone altar tables), we should highlight the minor traces of mural painting, displaying interesting Manueline decorative bars.

The medium-relief sculpture of the enthroned Virgin breast-feeding Baby Jesus, dated back to circa 1500 and manufactured by a Brussels workshop (or in Malines), is a remarkable work.

This representation of Saint Mary Major, placed on a corbel in the main altarpiece, on the Gospel side, combines the medieval hieratism of the majestic pose and a virtuosity that seems to appeal to modern piety.

Restoration and Enhancement
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Restoration and enhancement of the Church of Tarouquela (Photo: © SIPA – IHRU)The Church of Tarouquela underwent several interventions over the 20th century:
1924 - replacement of the floor flagging for a different pavement;

1952 - construction of an access road to the building;

1962 - conservation works;

1963 - repair works in the outer roofs of the sacristy, the chancel and the tomb chapel;

1965 - placement of supports for public lighting lamps;

After 1969, the works were carried out under the responsibility of the DGEMN – Direção Geral dos Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais [General Directorate for Buildings and National Monuments]:
1969 - conservation works on the roof, including the replacement of broken and missing tiles; laying of eaves and a general cleaning of debris; demolition of the porch located on the nave's lateral façade;

1976 - reconstruction of the roofs; demolition of the choir, pulpit and connecting staircase; break-out of the internal wall's plaster and cleaning of the internal wall faces; construction of wall strappings in order to reinforce the building's walls;

1977 - partial demolition of the sacristy, with the goal of clearing the view to one of the Romanesque crevices; adjustment of the lateral chapel's gables; reconstruction of the cornice from the chancel's south façade; temporary remodelling of the electrical installation, moving the electric switchboard from the sacristy to the Church; uncovering of the rose window from the lateral chapel; break-out of plaster and gap-filling in places where there were no mural paintings; closing of the crevice on the main façade, in order to adjust its profile; excavation near the lateral door, to allow for water drainage; lifting of the chancel's wooden platform; reconstruction of the façade's buttresses, which had been partially demolished due to roof works; placement of a granite jamb on the main portal; construction of brick walls and application of finishings on the blind arcades, including plaster; installation of stained glass and regular glass panes in the windows; archaeological excavations close to the lateral door to reveal an ancient grave;

Restoration and enhancement of the Church of Tarouquela (Photo: © SIPA – IHRU)1978 - installation of a wooden roof; lifting of the existing hydraulic mosaic, which was removed from the chancel; installation of an electric switchboard; assemblage of spotlights and simple projectors;

1980 - regularization of ashlars from the external walls; painting of doors; demolition of the deteriorated wind guard; closing of the old access to the choir; digging of an external ditch;

1984 - removal of ashlars to open a connection door between the chancel and the lateral chapel; construction of that door's concrete lintel; removal of the existing graves from the lateral chapel; installation of the door and benches;

1985 - lifting of the flagged pavement; land excavations to lower the pavement level; construction of a foundation box and laying of the pavement; reinforcement of the external walls' foundation; construction of the external walls using granite ashlars; construction of steps in granite masonry; improvement of the jambs from the access door to the sacristy; laying of a flagged pavement on the sacristy and on the access landing; cleaning of the roofs, replacing broken tiles and fixing loose tiles;

1991/1992 - demolition of the nave's external roof; regularization of the roof slab; construction of lattices using mortar; installation of the roof; improvement of the existing roof cap close to the tower; construction of an internal roof;

1994/1995 - restoration of the altarpieces and the ceiling;

1996 - door and drainage repair works;

2000 - improvement works on the roofs that involved roof replacements.

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