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Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro 
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  • Name: Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro
  • Typology: Monastery
  • Classification: National Monument by Decree 16-06-1910, DG 136 of 23rd June 1910
  • Municipality: Felgueiras
  • Patron Saint´s Day: Saint Mary Major – 5th August   
  • Worship Hours: Sunday, public holidays and festivity days - 8 am and 10.45 am 
  • Visiting Hours: Wednesday to Sunday - 10am - 6pm 
  • Entrance Fee: 2 € 
  • Support Services:

    Tourist Information Centre of the Route of the Romanesque
    Cloister of the Monastery of Pombeiro
    Ongoing activities may affect the opening hours. We suggest you to contact us in advance (+351 255 810 706 / +351 918 116 488 / visitasrr@valsousa.pt)

  • Telephone : +351 255 810 706 / +351 918 116 488 
  • Fax: +351 255 810 709 
  • E-Mail: rotadoromanico@valsousa.pt  
  • Web: www.rotadoromanico.com 
  • Location:
    Lugar do Mosteiro, Pombeiro de Ribavizela, Felgueiras, Porto.
  • Geographic Coordinates: 41° 22' 58.091" N / 8° 13' 32.597" W 
History
History
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Monastery of Saint Mary of PombeiroThe Monastery of Pombeiro was founded, according to tradition, in 1059, although the oldest known reference points the year of 1099.

However, more relevant is the donation in 1102 by the Sousões, a wealthy and powerful family with connections to the Court, in favour of the Monastery. A Charter was granted to the Monastery in 1112, meaning that those lands benefit from special privileges and their own justice system.

Pombeiro is, nevertheless, one of the oldest monastic institutions of the Portuguese territory, being documented since 853, according to the PAF, IPPAR - Instituto Português do Património Arquitetónico [Portuguese Institute of Architectural Heritage].  However, no element of the original building has so far been identified.  It was, most likely, a modest building, possibly linked to the Asturian authority and located in place of Sobrado, which, in medieval times, was called Columbino.

However, the origins of the current building have been known since the times of D.  Fernando, the Great.  According to Graf, in 1041, the Monastery is transferred to its present location. The construction of the first block began in 1059, a monument of which nothing resisted till our days.  However, it is during this period that the aforementioned donation of D.  Egas Gomes de Sousa occurs and the granting of the Charter of D.  Teresa.

The location of the Monastery, at the intersection of two major routes of the medieval period - one that connected Porto to Trás-os-Montes, by Amarante, and a second linking Beira to Guimarães and Braga, through Lamego and the Douro in Porto de Rei - highlights the significant importance of the Benedictine monastic complex in the region.  It was in these lands that kings settled on their journeys and where pilgrims found shelter and assistance.

The power of the family who made the donations and the offerings of the devotees allowed Pombeiro to assume itself as a potentate in the region. The real estate and patronages kept adding to the heritage of the Monastery, which amounted to 37 churches and a highly coveted annual income, from rents and tithes. The power of Pombeiro extends to Vila Real.

The Benedictines, with a strong support from the Sousões of Ribavizela, promote the commissioning of the Romanesque Church, whose dating should point to the second half of the 12th century or the early decades of the 13th century.  Rodrigues refers the existence of the inscription dated 1199 outside the south face of the transept, in which the alleged founder of the work, D.  Gonçalo de Sousa is mentioned.

Upon completion of the works on the main façade, the front received a three-nave galilee, for the burial of noblemen of Entre-Douro-e-Minho, although from these tombs only two Romanesque tombs remain, currently located inside the temple, and assigned according to Barroca, to an unknown nobleman from the family of Lima and to D. João Afonso de Albuquerque.

In the modern age, Pombeiro was object of profound changes, most of which took place in the Baroque period.  One wing of the cloister dates from 1702, the century in which the new chancel, the choir, the organ, the numerous works of gilded wood, the two towers flanking the façade and part of the monastic wing were built.

The cloisters were submitted to remodeling in the early nineteenth century, with a neoclassical campaign, interrupted in 1834, with the extinction of the religious orders.

Historical Figures
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Master Arnaus
This would have been a particularly imaginative artist with technical skills far above his peers, the most interesting painter of frescoes of the Portuguese Renaissance, whose work is very well known and dominated by plastic effects of great technical virtuosity.

The importance of the painter of frescoes, who would also be a great painter with easel, art considered nobler at the time, lies in the fact that he was commissioned by important figures of the society of the time, as stated by Luís Afonso, including the abbot of Pombeiro, D. António de Melo. The contract, according to the author, would have included works in the Churches of Vila Verde, Arnoso and Vila Marim, all part of the heritage of the Monastery of Pombeiro.

The high skills of Arnaus lead him to make the most of the relationship between mural painting and architecture, cleverly making use of windows, recesses and blind arches to create, or increase, the scenic effects of optical illusion.  Through this technique, mentions Afonso, Arnaus gives his art greater realism and depth.



Gomes Eciegas
He was born in 1024 and died in 1102.  He was the son of Count D. Aciega Visóis, Lord of Basto, and of D.  Aragunta Soares. He was a nobleman at the court of King D.  Fernando, Governor of the “Terra” [territory] of Sousa and founder, together with his wife Gontroda, of the Monastery of Pombeiro.

This Monastery was built in his own land in the valley of Pombeiro, where there was a Chapel dedicated to Saint Mary, which was destroyed by the Moors. In addition to the foundation, the couple donated their farms of Sousa, of Idães, of Penacova, of Pombeiro and other assets.




Friar José de Santo António de Vilaça 
Friar José de Santo António Vilaça (December 18th, 1731, Braga - August 30th, 1809, Braga) was a Benedictine sculptor, wood carver and architect of the  18th century. He devoted his life largely to the work in the Benedictine churches of the dioceses of Braga and Porto. 

Author of a vast artistic production, António Vilaça, son of the carpenter Custódio Ferreira, engages in the art of wood in the Monastery of Tibães, around 1757, where he ends up taking his vows. 

António Vilaça's work as a decorative engraver always stood out in his art, although he still designed the plans of several religious buildings and sketched many statues.  He also designed altars, pulpits, valances, window and door frames, boxes for organs and chairs, benches, credences and arm-chairs of significant originality.

After being sent, in the summer of 1764, to Refojos, Cabeceiras de Basto, where he designed all the carving, Vilaça arrives at the Monastery of Pombeiro in 1770, where he participated in the modernization of the Romanesque temple.  This mammoth task lasted for two decades.  António Vilaça is buried in the main cloister of Tibães.



Gonçalo Mendes de Sousa
Gonçalo Mendes de Sousa
Gonçalo Mendes de Sousa, the Good, was born in 1124. He was the son of Mem Viegas de Sousa and was a counsellor of King D. Afonso Henriques who, in 1155, gave him a royal estate in the "Couto" [place of privileges] of Pombeiro and recognized as lord and ruler of the “Terra” [territory].

D. Gonçalo de Sousa chose the manor of Unhão for his residence and erected the local Church, dedicated in the year 1165, by Archbishop of Braga D. João Peculiar. It is said that, that same year, King D. Afonso Henriques was welcomed in his home, having then occurred an erotic episode, narrated in the “Livro de Linhagens” [Book of Lineages] of Count D. Pedro and later resumed as the theme of the curious historic novel, titled “O Pecado de D. Afonso Henriques” [The Sin of King D. Afonso Henriques], written by playwright D.  João de Castro.

Gonçalo Mendes de Sousa died on 5th October 1179. In his last wishes, he chose the Monastery of Pombeiro as his grave, leaving to the monastery all his estates of Basto, three pounds of Church of Margaride, five pounds of the Church of Saint Verissimus, the Church of Samarim to remake the sacred vestments and tower (current home of the “Paço” [Palace] of Pombeiro) that he built for hospice and inn for those pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela.




D. Manuel de Faria e Sousa
D. Manuel de Faria e Sousa
Born in Quinta do Souto (or Caravela), in the parish of Pombeiro, county of Felgueiras on March 18th, 1590.  He was the son of Amador Peres de Eiró, nobleman of the Royal House of D.  Luísa de Faria, granddaughter of the Lord of Valmelhorado. He was baptized in the Church of the Benedictine Monastery of Pombeiro.

At age 10 he went to Braga to study Humanities. The commitment shown in the studies did not go unnoticed, and, in 1604, he was admitted as secretary in the service of the Archbishop of Porto, D.  Gonçalo de Morais Francisco who, incidentally, was his relative.

In 1614 he marries Catarina Machado, daughter of Pedro Machado, the first bookkeeper of the Royal Treasury of Porto, and Catarina Lopes Ferreira.

Ambitious for higher offices, in 1619, he left for Madrid as the private secretary to Pedro Álvares Pereira, Count of Muge, who held the position of Secretary of the State Council of the dynasty of the Filipes for Portuguese affairs. 

After the Restoration of Independence of Portugal in 1640, he decided not to return to Portugal for reasons not fully understood. However, there is a theory that argues that Manuel de Faria e Sousa did not return so that he could work as an informer of the Portuguese crown on the actions of Madrid.

He died on June 3rd, 1649 at the home of the Marquis de Montebelo. Buried in the Monastery of Premonstratrenses in Madrid, he was later transferred to the Monastery of Pombeiro.

Author of at least 20 printed and 16 handwritten works, Manuel de Faria e Sousa was a poet, historian and a remarkable writer.  In 29 years of work, he wrote thousands of pages, even writing in one day as much as one hundred letters on different subjects.  He was the first to write in eight syllable verses, which consisted of eleven, as well as the consonants sestinas. 

As a writer, he was also the author of the first major interpretation of "Os Lusíadas", by Luís de Camões, in 1639. As a historian, he followed João de Barros.  In the works “Epitome de las histórias portuguesas”, of 1628, “Ásia Portuguesa”, of 1666, and “África Portuguesa”, of 1681 - these last two posthumously printed - Manuel de Faria e Sousa demonstrates his desire to draw a general history of our country.



Nicolau Coelho
Nicolau Coelho
Portuguese navigator, born in the county of Felgueiras (15th century - 1504). Expert in astronomy navigation, he was the commander of one of three ships that participated in the discovery of the sea route to India, in 1498.

During the journey, the missions of probing the anchorages for the fleet, as well as of exploring the African coast, were entrusted to him as proof of his experience and knowledge.

On the return trip to Portugal, on April 25th, 1499 and at the time of the low height of the Great River (current Guinea Bissau), Nicolau Coelho is parted from Vasco da Gama due to a sudden storm. Deciding to continue the journey, the Bérrio is the first vessel of the expedition to enter the river Tagus, on July 10th, 1499, giving the first news of the success of the mission.  The important role played during the trip was rewarded by D.  Manuel, who granted him, on January 24th 1500, a pension of 50,000 reis per year.

Only six months after returning from India, Nicolau Coelho departures once again to the East in the armada of Pedro Alvares Cabral. Consisting of thirteen ships, the fleet sailed from Restelo on March 9th 1500, with Nicolau Coelho at the command of the Berrio. The formal objective of the trip was to try to resume trade relations with the Indic ports of Calicut, Cananor and Sofala, as Vasco da Gama, in his first attempt, had been totally disastrous.

On April 22nd 1500, accidentally or deliberately - although recent historical research argue that the Portuguese had strong evidence of the existence of land on the other side of the Atlantic - he saw flat land with large trees.

The recognition of the coast of this new territory was again entrusted to Nicolau Coelho rec, as the command of a small vessel sent to firm land to establish contact with the natives who were on the beach.  Again, the navigator from Felgueiras showed his experience and ability to establish relationships with new people.

The land discovered was named Terra de Santa Cruz (today Porto Seguro, in the Brazilian state of Bahia).  On May 2nd of that same year, the fleet sailed to India finally fulfilling the formal goal of the travel.

On April 13th 1503, just over a year after his return to Portugal, Nicolau Coelho departs for the third time to India, at the command of the ship Faial, of the armada of Afonso and Francisco de Albuquerque.

However, on the return trip, in January 1504, the Faial sank near the "shoals of Saint Lazarus" (now the Quirimbas Archipelago, Mozambique), and the navigator found his death in the disaster.



The Sousas or Sousões
This important family of the Tâmega and Sousa actively participated in the Reconquest of Lisbon, through the first of the Sousões, D. Gonçalo Mendes, besides being associated with other cases of resettlement and reconstruction of castles, as the one in Alcanede. 

Large portions of land in Lisbon became property of the Sousões, including Barcarena, which would have passed on to the son of D. Gonçalo Mendes, D. Mendo de Sousa.



D. Teresa
D. TeresaD. Teresa of Leon (1080, Monastery of Monte de Ramo (Galicia) or Póvoa de Lanhoso - November 11th, 1130), also spelled Tarasia or Tareja, was Princess of Leon and later, by marriage to the Count D.  Henrique, Countess (or Queen, as it appears in some sources) of Portugal.

Illegitimate daughter of King D. Alfonso VI of León and Castile and Ximena Moniz, a Castilian noblewoman, she was given away in marriage, in 1093, to Henrique of Burgundy, a French nobleman who had helped King D. Alfonso VI in the conquests to the Moors.  Teresa was 13 and Henrique 24. Afonso VI gives the couple the County of Portucale, a territory between the Minho and the Vouga and, after 1096, between the Minho and the Tagus.

Widowed in 1112, she already had an offspring of four children: Afonso Henriques, who would be king of Portugal, and her daughters Urraca, Teresa and Sancha Henriques.

Surrounded by the forces of D. Urraca,  her half-sister with whom she was in a constant struggle, she secludes herself in the castle of Lanhoso, where she is able to negotiate the Treaty of Lanhoso (1121) that allows her to keep the government of the Portucalense County.

She puts all her trust in the Galician nobility, especially in D.  Perez, Count of Trava, which alienated the Portucalense nobleman against her and her own son, Afonso Henriques.  Together, they draw the power from the hands of the mother by the force of arms, at the Battle of São Mamede, on June 24th, 1128.  Having found refuge in Galicia, D. Teresa is accompanied by the Galician nobleman, with whom she had a daughter.

Her remains have since been transferred to the See of Braga, where they lie beside her first husband, Count D.  Henrique.

Legends and Curiosities
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Archaeological remains The archaeological excavations conducted in 2000, under the responsibility of IPPAR - Instituto Português do Património Arquitetónico [Portuguese Institute of Architectural Heritage], the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro revealed archaeological remains which suggested the presence of activity related to the casting of bronze bells.

The archaeological works have revealed the existence of a casting pit with a cooking chamber, built according to the technique described by the monk Theophilus Lombardus, in the 11th-12th centuries, in De Diversus Artibus, according to Ricardo Erasun Cortés. According to this author, the pit is implanted inside the church to avoid "prying eyes" over the work of the master bell ringer, as this art was regarded with great secrecy. On the other hand, it facilitated the fitting of castings in their definite place.

Chronology
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1059 – Foundation of the Monastery, according to tradition;

1099 – The oldest documented reference to the Monastery;

1102 – D. Gomes Echiegues and his wife Gontroda sign a donation charter in favour of the Monastery;

1112 – The Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro is bestowed with a Land Charter [place of privileges];

1199 – Date engraved in an embedded panel by the Epistle, next to the cloister’s access door. It is an inscription of a funerary character that refers to D. Gonçalo, an abbot who played an important role in the Monastery of Pombeiro, by founding something ("Qui Fundavit ..."). This epitaph may indicate the commissioning of the Romanesque factory of Pombeiro;

1252-1276 – Ruling of the Abbot Rodrigo, marking the architectonic peek of the Monastery’s medieval structure;

1427 – Commendatory abbots become responsible for the monasterial management;

1526-1556 – Abbacy of D. António de Melo;

1500-1530 - Approximate date of the mural painting program that covered part of the interior of the Church. Of this campaign only a few fragments remain, reflected in the apses and also in an uncovered arch on the wall of the nave on the south side;

1566 – The Congregation of the Black Monks of Saint Benedict of Portugal is created;

1568 – The main structures of the Monastery of Saint Mary were severely ruined. Only the Church featured a certain artistic nobilitation;

1569 – On September 14th the Monastery is integrated in the Benedictine Congregation;

1584 – The 5th General Chapter of the Benedictine Congregation is held in Pombeiro;

1589 – A visit to the building is conducted, by order of Filipe II, leading to the renovation of the Monastery of Pombeiro;

1589 – Friar Bernardo de Braga is elected as the triennial abbot of the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro, a nomination which gave rise to the triennial abbacy election system;

1629 – According to documentation, the towers of the façade were already built;

1719 – In March this year, the first stone to build the Chapel of Saint Quiteria is laid, constructed the Chapel of Saint Peter, and depending on the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro;

1719-1722 – Friar Bento da Ascenção begins the process of the Baroque modernization of the Monastery. Works take place in the main façade and also in the chevet of the Church of the Monastery;

1760s – Beginning of the Church’s maintenance works that would grant a Rococo ambiance to it;

1770-1773 – The main chapel is totally rebuilt, and the altarpiece ensemble corresponding to the main altar is also executed in this period. According to documentation, the box for the Church organ was made in 1770, as the latter was at that time being finished in Guimarães; Intervention of the artist Friar José de Santo António Ferreira Vilaça;

1776 – The Church transformation ensues. The side altars are sold. The execution of the pulpits began, placed face to face in the Church’s central nave, being completed in the following year;

1777/1780 – New structures replace the former retables. Two other lateral retables are made during this period;

1783 – The Church organ of the Monastery was already in place, being considered as “one of the best in the Order”. It was built by Francisco António Solha (1758-1785);

1809 – On May 13th, a great fire would destroy a large part of the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro’s community area, the Church being the sole building untouched by calamity;

1819 – In this year, and following the campaign initiated after the catastrophe that had hit the Monastery years earlier, the reconstruction of the Monastery’s community area takes place:  the Chapter Room, the library, the hostelry, the barns, among others, are built; Purchase of new furnishings for the sacristy;

1822 – Continuation of works in the cloister, which would never come to be completed;

1834 – Beginning of the process of extinction of the religious orders in Portugal;

1910 – On June 23rd, the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro is classified as National Monument;

1958-1987 – During this period, the works were under the guidance of the DGEMN – Direção Geral dos Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais [General Directorate for Buildings and National Monuments], aiming for the restoration of the several components of the complex, which focused mostly on the Church.

1993-2006 – Executions of the rehabilitation and recovery works on various structures, under the direction of IPPAR - Instituto Português do Património Arquitetónico [Portuguese Institute of Architectural Heritage];

1998 – The Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro is included in the Route of the Romanesque of Vale do Sousa;

2009 – Opening of the Tourist Information Centre of the Route of the Romanesque;

2015 – Conservation and restoration works, under the scope of the Route of the Romanesque, of the organ pipes located in the high-choir of the Church, dormant for two centuries;

- Development and introduction in the cloister, by the municipality of Felgueiras, a replica of the eighteenth-century fountain (1702) that remained in the Monastery until 1896 and is currently in the garden of Quinta da Boavista, in Castelo de Paiva.

Specialities
Architecture
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The Monastery of Pombeiro, an example of religious, Romanesque and 18th century architecture, consists of a Romanesque Church with a longitudinal plan with three naves with diaphragm arches, a false transept and triple chevet, reformed in 18th century. According to Sereno, Santos and Avellar, from Romanesque times, the apses and the two small chest tomb with recumbent statue (13th century) remain.  The portal and the great oculus, from the same time, depict the influence of Bolognese type.  The logs of archivolts would date from the second half of the 12th century, but the rosette, framed by Romanesque columns and arches and similar to one in Roriz and Paço de Sousa, suggests the beginning of the 13th century.

The monument shows a plant with longitudinal development, marked by the great depth of the chancel.  The main façade, to the southeast, is framed by two bell towers, topped by spiralled pinnacles, and conserves the Romanesque portal with five archivolts, sitting on carved capitals.  The latter is topped by a large rosette, framed by Romanesque columns and arches.  The interior, with three naves, keeps the apses and two small chest tombs.
Plan of the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro

On the north wall of the nave is a tomb cover with an epigraph, from the galilee.  It is possible to find an inscription in one of the ashlars on wall of the transept by the Epistle.  The triforium, over the transept, was replaced by a running balcony, finishing in a louver. But the choir, with stalls, is supported by a decorated arch.  In the chancel, an enormous altarpiece stands out. 

To the south of the Church is the Monastery, of which now only the façade of the cloister and the main body of the residential part remain. The first, with a symmetrical, accurate and well balanced composition, comprising two floors, features at the level of the ground floor, an arcade with nine full arches. On the floor there is an equal number of balconied windows with paired segmental and angular fronts.
Façades of the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro

The main façade of the Monastery has four doors on the ground floor, three of which topped by fronts.  The central door gives access to the housing area and the side doors to the cloister and the agricultural field. Above these doors there is a set of small rectangular windows, which form the middle floor corresponding to the area of the cells. Attached to these, onto the space defined by the cloister, the windows are false, contributing only to the formal balance of the façade.

On the top floor, joined by a continuous frieze, there is a set of seven balconied windows topped by angular fronts, except for the central one which features a curved pediment. This reinforces the front axle, which is topped by a cornice with an edge and a central front with the coat of arms in the tympanum and three finishing urns, which are repeated at each end of the façade. The covering takes the shape of a gabled roof.

The rosette in the western façade, the sculpture and front of the main entrance indicate that the construction would have been initiated in the last quarter of the 12th century, but only completed in the first decades of the 13th century.  Despite the reforms carried out in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Church maintains its original Romanesque structure.   

Façade of the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro
 In 1629 there were already two towers that were added to the initial project, possibly as a result of the collapse of the galilee, intended for burial ceremonies, featuring the arms of the old Portuguese nobility. The wall fitted between the two towers and the respective rosette were moved forward, between 1719 and 1722.

The Church consists of three naves with three flights, covered by diaphragm arches and wood.  Outside, the transept stands out only by its height and especially by its volume.

The main portal appears as a remarkable example of Romanesque sculpture, namely the capitals, of botanic inspiration, carved in granite by an artist.  The rosette, proto-Gothic, features a structure similar to that in Paço de Sousa, Penafiel.

The lateral façades are more modern, showing the typical scenographic solutions of the architecture and decoration schemes of the Rococo.

Particular worth noticing is the commemorative inscription stating the deposition of relics in the Church of the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro, engraved in two granite ashlars, built-in on the east wall of the transept, at the corner with the South apse.

Archeology
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Archaeological remains The changes and transformations to which the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro was subject over nearly 10 centuries, including those resulting from the fire in 1809, during the Napoleonic wars, and the extinction of the Benedictine Order in 1834, posed several questions for which the answers have been sought by Archaeology.

The first excavations took place from April 15th 1997, involving the cloisters, seeking to determine their plans and other buildings from medieval to contemporary times. At the same time, these archaeological works sought to identify the various stages of the remodeling to which the Monastery was subject till the reconstruction occurred after the fire of 1809. 

Till 2006, according to José Mendes Pinto, it was possible to reconstruct the plan of the apse of the chancel, verify the originality of the lateral apses and the deployment of the west façade of the Church, determine changes over the centuries of the sacristy plan, Chapter Room and part of the east wing, verify the principles of monastic hydraulics, observe the rhythms of burial in the cloister and in the Church, and excavate the south wing, where the kitchen and dining, both missing, were found.

Fountain of Saint Barbara

Meanwhile, the archaeological excavations focused on the quest for the infrastructure of the Fountain of Saint Barbara, near the old road at the beginning of the courtyard.  This Fountain was built in 1754, according to the author, to support the locals and pilgrims visiting the place, passing by the road from Guimarães.

Surroundings
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In the scope of the Study for the Enhancement and Protection of the Monuments of the  Route of the Romanesque of the Vale do Sousa, in which the guidelines and framework of the subsequent development of technical projects for implementation and respective works for the enhancement and protection of the surroundings were defined, the conditions considered most relevant for the preservation and requalification of the surroundings were described.

The aim of this Study is to preserve the context in which these are integrated, namely the integration of constraints on legal provisions - such as Special Protection Areas - restricting urban interventions that may endanger the integrity of the surroundings.

Surroundings of the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro

We also proceeded to the definition of areas and interventions of general nature to take into account in the surroundings, in order to extend the planning to a wider area and allow better circulation of tourists in the region.

Finally, the Study defined the priority interventions to be carried out in the surroundings, to allow the stabilization of the territories and, simultaneously, correct and/or create structures and supporting infrastructures.

In the Monastery of Pombeiro, considering the building's architectonic quality and the archaeological remains found in the immediate environment, the Study argues the need for maintenance and improvement of the landscape offered by the agricultural valley where the property is implemented.

With regard to the surrounding landscape, this Study concludes that the plant species typical of watercourses should be restored, as the fields should be partitioned to keep the drainage lines and stabilize the banks.

Surrounding of the Monastery of Saint Mary of Pombeiro

Gallery
  • +Organ in the choir of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Central nave of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Altarpiece of the sacristy of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Excavations at the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Lateral façade of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Tomb of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Mural painting of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Image of Saint Mary Major of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Chancel of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Sacristy's arks of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Voussoirs of the west portal of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Cloister of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Capitals of the west portal of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Outside apsiole of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Capitals of the west portal of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Main façade of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Nave of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +Voussoirs of the west portal of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +West portal of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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  • +West façade of the Monastery of Pombeiro

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Bibliography
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BESSA, Paula Virgínia de Azevedo – “O mosteiro de Pombeiro e as igrejas do seu padroado: mobilidade de equipas de pintura mural”. In Artistas e artífices e a sua mobilidade no mundo de expressão portuguesa: actas do VII Colóquio Luso-Brasileiro de História da Arte, 2005 . Porto: Departamento de Ciências e Técnicas do Património da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 2007. p. 439-447.

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FERNANDES, M. Antonino – Pombeiro e o seu fundador D. Gomes Aciegas . Felgueiras: Câmara Municipal de Felgueiras, 1991.

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FERREIRA-ALVES, Natália Marinho [et al.] – Mosteiro de Santa Maria de Pombeiro. Felgueiras: Município de Felgueiras, 2011.

LENCART, Joana – O Costumeiro de Pombeiro: uma comunidade Beneditina no século XIII . Lisboa: Editorial Estampa, 1997.

MEIRELES, António da Assunção, Frei – Memórias do Mosteiro de Pombeiro . Lisboa: Academia Portuguesa da História, 1942.

ROSAS, Lúcia (coord.) – Românico do Vale do Sousa. Lousada: Comunidade Urbana do Vale do Sousa, 2008.

ARQUIVO NACIONAL DA TORRE DO TOMBO
MF/Finanças, cx. 2244, Inventário nº 312, Mosteiro de Santa Maria de Pombeiro.
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