General Information
Mosteiro de Santa Maria de Vila Boa do Bispo  
See Map
Virtual Tour
  • Name: Monastery of Saint Mary of Vila Boa do Bispo
  • Typology: Monastery
  • Classification: National Monument by Decree 129/77, DR 226 of 29th September 1977 (Church of Vila Boa do Bispo, including tombs) / Public Interest Building, by Decree 129/77, DR 226 of 29th September 1977 (Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo)
  • Municipality: Marco de Canaveses
  • Patron Saint´s Day: Saint Mary - 15th August 
  • Worship Hours: Sunday - 11 am 
  • Visiting Hours: By appointment   
  • Support Services:
  • Telephone : 255 810 706 / 918 116 488   
  • Fax: 255 810 709   
  • E-Mail: rotadoromanico@valsousa.pt    
  • Web: www.rotadoromanico.com   
  • Location:
    Avenida do Mosteiro, Vila Boa do Bispo, Marco de Canaveses, Porto.
  • Geographic Coordinates: 41° 7' 49.40" N / 8° 13' 13.79" O 
History
History
Ouvir

Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo (Photo: © SIPA – IHRU)Mentioned in 11th and 12th century documents as the Monastery of Saint Mary of Vila Boa, this convent was already associated with the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine in the mid-12th century.

According to tradition, the monastic house was founded between 990 and 1022 by D. Sisnando, the bishop of Porto (between 1049 and 1085) and brother of D. Monio Viegas, on the site where a legendary battle between Christians and Muslims had taken place, as stated in the Chronicle of the Augustinian Canons.

Ever since its foundation, this Monastery can be associated with the lineage of the Gascos de Ribadouro, a noble family that achieved a great influence at the time. Lords of a large number of monasteries strategically positioned along the tributaries of the river Douro, on both banks and along the routes of the Reconquest, these noblemen controlled a wide geographical area to the north and south of this river.

We should mention the fact that the territory in question featured conditions which favoured monastic life: being uneven, it was avoided by travellers and had recently been ploughed and repopulated with inhabitants that, in the following centuries, proved to be well rooted.

For some time, we could identify members of the Gascos family, direct descendants of their lineage, who were in possession of assets in Vila Boa do Bispo or within the current parish territory.

Its importance was such that it even received the charter of "couto" [place with privileges] from King D. Afonso Henriques in 1141 and was granted special privileges by the pontiffs of the time: the priors of the Monastery were allowed to use a mitre (Papal Brief of Lucius II, 1144) and received the distinction which allowed them to use a crosier (Bull of Anastasius IV, 1153).

In the 13th and 14th centuries, Vila Boa do Bispo was one of the richest and most powerful Monasteries in the region. In the 16th century it was passed onto the management of the Commanders and, in the following century, the Chronicles highly appraised the importance of the legend underlying the foundation of this monastic house.

It is, therefore, within this context that the Romanesque Church was given a new look. As indicated by the various cartouches that are strategically placed inside the building, the main changes occurred between 1599 and 1686.

The chancel has a Baroque atmosphere. The cobalt-blue-on-white tile lining of the side walls combines the composition of an individual figure, in the upper part, with an elaborate composition of floral motifs in large vases, flanked by hybrid female figures, bordered by contorted leaves. The main altarpiece was designed according to the National Baroque taste.

Trompe-l'oeil painting prevails in the nave, both with the use of marbled elements (in the sacristy door, the pulpit and the arch that supports the choir) and scenic decorations.

In the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, there are plenty of fake architectural elements and the common floral ornamentation with grotesque elements is much to the Baroque celebration taste.

The National-style collateral altarpieces evoke the Holy Christ and the Virgin of the Rosary and the side altarpiece, on the left side of the nave, evokes the Virgin of the Assumption.

An extravagant balcony with balustrade and fake marbled elements, on the left side of the nave, features a base decorated with chinoiserie. It is supported by an atlas standing on a half-shell.

We highlight the remaining tomb art collection, both inside and outside the Church, which suggests the existence of burials throughout the 13th and 14th centuries.

Chronology
Ouvir

990-1022 - According to tradition, the Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo was founded by D. Sisnando, the brother of Monio Viegas;

1012 - First reference to the Monasterio S. Mariae Villaebonae;

1022 - Date included in the funerary inscription of D. Monio Viegas and of two of his sons, D. Egas Moniz and D. Gomes Moniz, engraved in a sarcophagus lid found in the cloister of the Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo;

1120 - Reference to the Monasterium... Villa Noua [sic] episcopi;

1141, February 12th - The Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo - or, more specifically, the prior D. Egas, his brother D. Monio and his monks -, received the charter of "couto" [place with privileges] granted by King D. Afonso Henriques;

1142 - The bishop of Porto, D. Pedro Rabaldis (1138-1145) visits the chapel where D. Sisnando was buried; later, he would have his tomb transferred to the Monastery of Vila Boa [do Bispo];

1143 - There are already reports of the presence of the Canons Regular of St. Augustine in Vila Boa do Bispo;

1144 - In the Papal Brief of Pope Lucius II (1144-1145), the priors of the Monastery were allowed to use a mitre;

1153 - In the Bull of Pope Anastasius IV (1153-1154), the priors were also distinguished with the permit to use a crosier;

12th-13th centuries - Chronology of the remaining Romanesque elements of Vila Boa do Bispo;

1297 - Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) made an explicit confirmation of the Rule of Saint Augustine in the Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo;

13th Century - The Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo held many farmhouses and patronages in several parishes of the region;

14th century - Design of the tomb of D. Salvado Pires;

1320 - The Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo pays a tax of 1500 Portuguese libras;

1348, November 25th - Inscription engraved on the tomb of D. Nicolau Martins, the Monastery's prior;

1362 - After this date, the tombs of D. Júrio Geraldes and D. Nicolau Martins were commissioned by the former to the same workshop;

1381, January 30th - Funeral inscription engraved in the lateral section of the lid of the tomb of D. Júrio Geraldes, Chief Magistrate of King D. Fernando (1387-1383) for the region of Entre-Douro-e-Minho;

1475 - The presentation of commendatory abbots in Vila Boa do Bispo begins;

1593 - The Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo is integrated in the Congregation of the Holy Cross in Coimbra;

1599-1686 - Earliest and latest dates of the various cartouches placed inside the building, which offer evidence of the great transformation it underwent during the Modern Period;

1605 - Renovation of the Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo;

17th century (2nd half) - Transformation of the Romanesque building of Vila Boa do Bispo;

1650-60 - Tiling of the baptistery;

1686 - Possible construction of the sacristy, purposely opening an access door to the chancel, duly identified over the jamb;

18th century (1st half) - Chronology of the Baroque intervention in the Church's interior, based on existing stylistic elements;

1727 - Date engraved in the sacristy washbasin;

1740 - Tiling of the chancel;

1758 - According to the information provided by the "Memórias Paroquiais" [Parish Memorandum], the building of Vila Boa do Bispo would have already had an identical look to the one we currently see;

1882-1888 - Disassembling and reconstruction of the tower;

1886 November 16th - Project for an interior staircase surrounding the walls of the tower;

1977 - Classification of the Church (and tombs) as National Monument; classification of the area of the former Monastery as Public Interest Building;

1997 (onwards) - Restoration of plaster coatings on the Church's internal and external walls;

2010 - The Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo becomes part of the Route of the Romanesque's complex of monuments;

2012 - Conservation intervention on the chancel's vault, revealing a 17th-century mural painting, after the removal of the existing coffered ceiling.

Specialities
Architecture
Ouvir

The Church of the Monastery of Vila Boa do Bispo features a longitudinal plan, with a single nave, a deep chancel and an adjacent sacristy to the north. It has an adjacent quadrangular bell tower to the south.
 
The most original elements from the Romanesque period can be found on the Church's façade. Although they're incomplete, the two blind arcades that flank the main portal - which was totally transformed during the Modern Period - feature two archivolts with quadrupeds and birds carved on the perimeter of the voussoirs; their surface was dug to reveal the shapes of the animal bodies, leaving a continuous edge over the corner.

Plan of the Monastery of Vila Boa do BispoSo, on both sides of the voussoirs, we find symmetrical and antithetical compositions with the animals joining their heads over the arcade's corner. On the inner arcade, the animals seem to be outraged, standing against a foliage background.

It is indeed curious that the Romanesque elements that remain in the Church's body lead us to a later chronology than the one suggested by the ones in the main façade.

We refer ourselves to the corbels that are still preserved under the cornice, in the chancel, but on the side that is hidden by the remaining monastic structures; these corbels have a quadrangular profile, and one of them shows a face taking up all its available space.

On the south side façade, the narrow crevices that rip the granite wall face - which was recently uncovered - suggest a medievality that cannot be dissociated from this Church of Vila Boa do Bispo.

Inside, they show a dihedral torus that works as a decorative element, which together with the remains of broken arches that are partially exposed inside the Church (for example, over the access door to the sacristy), confirms the thesis that the 17th century "masked" the building's Romanesque nature.

In addition, we should also consider the possibility that its interior may have been decorated with blind arcades, which would reinforce the prominent position that this building had within the context of Portuguese Romanesque architecture.

But one of the most curious Romanesque traces is found on the chevet's south side façade. Based on its visible elements, we can state that the primitive chancel would have been square with a stone vault (as the buttresses reveal) and it would have also been externally decorated with blind arcades.

The fragments of a chequered frieze also point us to a Romanesque chronology. However, the most significant element is a capital featuring the mermaid theme, which we also find depicted in a capital on the north side portal of the Monastery of Travanca (Amarante). Among all mystical entities, the fish-tailed mermaid was one of the most depicted themes in our Romanesque style.

Restoration and Enhancement
Ouvir

The recovery and valorisation works carried out in this Monastery are well documented, as in the case of "Memória Justificativa" [Explanatory Memoir] from January 21st, 1882, which informs us about the decision to reconstruct the tower of Vila Boa do Bispo: "By an Order issued by the Repartição d’Obras Publicas [Public Works Department] on August 8th last year, the Direcção d’Obras Publicas do Districto do Porto [Directorate for Public Works of the District of Porto] has ordered the demolition of the tower of the Church of Villa Boa do Bispo, in the Municipality of Marco de Canaveses and, afterwards, its reconstruction". Such a radical option is justified by the serious state of ruin in which the tower found itself.

In response to a request from the Presidente da Junta da Paróquia [Chairman of the Parish Council], the Chief-Engineer of the5.ª Secção das Obras Públicas do Porto [5th Section of Public Works of Porto] was sent a "project for the internal stonework stairs surrounding the walls of the tower" of the Church of Vila Boa do Bispo. This project dates back to November 1886. In the following year, the works were already being carried out and duly inspected. The work was expected to be completed by June 11th that year, since, on the previous day, part of the cornice had already been placed; so, it was requested that the authorities in Porto commissioned "the construction of the dome on the same tower, before the stonemasons went away." Therefore, in the following month, they were working on the bell tower's finishings, although the "stone placed as a clock display (...) had not been cut yet".

However, on January 24th, 1888, the Palace directly informs the Director of Public Works of Porto that His Majesty, King D. Luís I (1861-1889), ordered the suspension of the reconstruction works in the tower of the Church of Vila Boa do Bispo, which he had previously approved by the Decrees of August 8th, 1881 and September 27th, 1883. However, by contributing with an allowance of one hundred and sixty thousand réis [former Portuguese currency unit], the completion of the works would be left to the parish's own responsibility. We should note that, in the previous year, the monarch had already contributed with four hundred thousand réis [former Portuguese currency unit] "for the Church's repair works."

Taking a leap into the 20th century, Lúcia Rosas tells us that it was during the 1940s that the tombs of D. Nicolau Martins and D. Júlio Geraldes were placed in arcosolia embedded on the nave's wall, on the Gospel side. In 1946, the "Fabriqueira" Commission was already working on "the accommodation of the stone tombs that formerly belonged in the cloister." Two years later, "9500$00 [former Portuguese currency unit] had already been spent in the Church's works, including the construction of the loculi to accommodate the two tombs".

We only have news regarding Vila Boa do Bispo in 1955 and these are related to the opening of the process for the classification of the Church as a National Monument, including its tombs. Taking the opportunity, Father Manuel de Oliveira Sousa Vales - the parish priest of Vila Boa do Bispo at the time - quickly contacted the DGEMN – Direção Geral dos Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais [General Directorate for Buildings and National Monuments], requesting the implementation of works he deemed urgent: the complete electrification of its interior, the repair of the woodwork that covered the chancel arch and several roof works.

As, at that time, the conservation of the monument was the "sole responsibility of the Parish that has the usufruct of its property", due to the fact that the legislation establishing that "the minimum conservation works needed in classified buildings, despite being privately owned, may be financed by the State whenever the financial inability of the corresponding owner is duly proved" had not been approved yet; the DGEMN – Direção Geral dos Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais [General Directorate for Buildings and National Monuments], being unable to give its contribution, made an offer to "provide technical assistance to the works that might be carried out by the Parish Priest of the Church of Vila Boa do Bispo in the future". So, what we were able to understand through the analysis of the documentation regarding this monument, was that priority was given to the "electrical installation".

We would have to wait until the 1990s to feel that the responsible governmental institutions were actually having an active intervention in this monument. Although there was a verification of the state of repair of the gilded woodwork altars in September 1990 - carried out by the former Instituto Português do Património Cultural [Portuguese Institute of Cultural Heritage] -, six years later, the technicians from the Centro de Conservação e Restauro [Centre of Conservation and Restoration] of the then IPPAR - Instituto Português do Património Arquitetónico [Portuguese Institute of the Architectonic Patrimony]conducted an inspection in the building under analysis. Although, by then, the "existence of a numerous artistic collection, comprising gilded woodwork altarpieces, tiles, a coffered ceiling and the stalls, some of which required interventions in terms of conservation and restoration" had already been detected, the truth is that the previous conduction of a study on the "built part, particularly focused on the stability of its structures", was considered as being important.

We cannot forget that the good conservation of the collection integrated into a given monument depends necessarily - in addition to the required cleaning and maintenance operations, preferably conducted by technicians who are specialized and have a thorough knowledge regarding the materials that were used and the variations that these are subject to -, on the stability and conservation of the architectural structure that accommodates them. Naturally, water leaks in vaults, like in the chancel vault, would cause serious damages to the coffered structure that was concealing it; these damages are, in most cases, silent. Therefore, it is considered "obvious that it is not possible to separate the intervention on the building from the intervention on the elements that were attached to it over time".

In April 1991, an extensive "Diagnosis of the building's state of conservation and pathologies" had already been conducted, accompanied by a prior proposal of intervention for the building's conservation and improvement. The truth is that, although the documentary sources do not specify it, through the analysis of several photographic sources we can assess that, at least in terms of external space, there were only conservation works after 2006. So, following one of the proposals from the 1997 document, the (lime and gravel-based) plaster was restored on the Church's external wall faces, giving them the look that currently exists.

In 2011, it underwent conservation works focused on the chancel's coffered ceiling that, by being dismounted, revealed an 18th century mural painting with hagiographic themes; this painting was then cleaned and consolidated.

Gallery
  • No results were found.
Know More
Bibliography

[S.a.] - Galeria das ordens religiosas e militares, desde a mais remota antiguidade até nossos dias: Adornada com muitas estampas. Porto: Typographia na Rua Formosa, 1843.

AGUIAR, P. M. Vieira de - Descrição histórica, corográfica e folclórica de Marco de Canaveses. Porto: Oficina de S. José, 1947.

ALARCÃO, Jorge de – Coimbra: a montagem do cenário urbano. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade, 2008.

ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de - Arquitectura românica de Entre Douro e Minho. Porto: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 1978. Tese de doutoramento apresentada à Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto.

ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de - História da arte em Portugal: o românico. Lisboa: Editorial Presença, 2001. ISBN 972-23-2827-1.

ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de - História da arte em Portugal: o românico. Lisboa: Publicações Alfa, 1986.

ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de; BARROCA, Mário - História da arte em Portugal: o gótico. Lisboa: Editorial Presença, 2002. ISBN 972-23-2841-7.

ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de; LOPES, Carlos Alberto Almeida - Eja (Entre-os-Rios): a civitas e a Igreja de S. Miguel. Portugália. Vol. 2/3 (1981-1982).

ALMEIDA, Fortunato; PERES, Damião, dir. - História da Igreja em Portugal. Porto: Livraria Civilização, 1971.

BARROCA, Mário - Epigrafia medieval portuguesa: 862-1422. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2000.

BARROCA, Mário - Necrópoles e sepulturas medievais de Entre-Douro-e-Minho: séculos V a XV. Porto: Universidade do Porto, 1987.

BARROS, João de - Colecção de manuscritos inéditos agora dados à estampa V: geographia d'entre Douro e Minho e Trás-os-Montes. Porto: Biblioteca Pública Municipal do Porto, 1919.

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor; RESENDE, Nuno - Mosteiro de santa Maria de Vila Boa do Bispo: Marco de Canaveses. In ROSAS, Lúcia, coord. cient. - Rota do Românico. Lousada: Centro de Estudos do Românico e do Território, 2014. Vol. 2, p. 357-388.

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor - A historiografia da arquitectura da época românica em Portugal. Porto: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 2010. Tese de doutoramento em história da arte portuguesa apresentada à Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 2010a. Texto policopiado.

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor - Igreja de São Pedro de Rates. In PÉREZ GONZÁLEZ, José María - Arte românica em Portugal. Aguiar del Campoo: Fundación Santa Maria la Real – C.E.R./Fundación Rámon Areces, 2010b. p. 213-228.

BOTELHO, Maria Leonor - Sé de Braga. In PÉREZ GONZÁLEZ, José María - Arte românica em Portugal. Aguiar del Campoo: Fundación Santa Maria la Real – C.E.R/Fundación Rámon Areces, 2010c. p. 41-50.

CARDOSO, Jorge - Agiologio lusitano... Lisboa: na Officina Craesbeckiana, 1652.

CHOAY, Françoise - A alegoria do património. Lisboa: Edições 70, 2000. ISBN 9789724412740.

COSTA, A. Carvalho da - Corografia portugueza e descripçam topografica do famoso reyno de Portugal... Lisboa: Off. de Valentim da Costa Deslandes, 1706.

CUNHA, Rodrigo da - Catalogo e historia dos bispos do Porto. Porto: João Rodriguez, 1623.

FERNANDES, A. de Almeida - Portugal primitivo medievo. [S.l.]: Associação de Defesa do Património Arouquense, 2001. ISBN 972-9474-25-7.

LORENTE FERNANDEZ, Ildefonso - Recuerdos de Liébana. Madrid: Maxtor, 1882. ISBN 9788497614924.

MATTOS, Armando de - A fachada da igreja românica de Vila Boa do Bispo. Douro-Litoral. n.º 2 (1948) 72-75.

MATTOSO, José - A nobreza medieval portuguesa: as correntes monásticas dos séculos XI e XII. Revista de História Económica e Social. N.º 10 (1982) 29-47.

MATTOSO, José - Obras completas: o monaquismo ibérico e Cluny. Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores, 2002a.

MATTOSO, José - Obras completas: Portugal medieval: novas interpretações. Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores, 2002b.

MONTEIRO, Maria Emília - Vila Boa do Bispo: tradição e mudança. Marco de Canaveses: Câmara Municipal, 1990.

MOREIRA, Domingos A. - Freguesias da diocese do Porto: elementos onomásticos alti-medievais. Boletim Cultural da Câmara Municipal do Porto. Vol. 7-8 (1989-1990) 7-119.

MOREIRA, Manuel - [Memória Paroquial de] Vila Boa do Bispo [Manuscrito]. 1758. Acessível em ANTT, Lisboa. PT-TT-MPRQ/39/176.

PORTUGAL. Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território - IRHU/Arquivo ex-DGEMN/DREMN 1706/14. Igrejas do Bispado do Porto: concelhos de Lousada e Marco de Canaveses.

PORTUGAL. Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território - IRHU/Arquivo ex-DGEMN/DREMN - Processos vários. Nº IPA PT011307300016 [Em linha]. Disponível em WWW: <URL:http://www.monumentos.pt>.

RODRIGUES, José Carlos Meneses - Retábulos no Baixo Tâmega e no Vale do Sousa: séculos XVII-XIX. Porto: Universidade Porto, 2004.

ROSAS, Lúcia Maria Cardoso; SOTOMAYOR-PIZARRO, J. A. de - Território, senhores e património na Idade Média. In AGUIAR, Alexandre, coord. - Marco de Canaveses: perspectivas. Marco de Canaveses: Câmara Municipal do Marco de Canaveses, 2009. ISBN 978-972-95492-7-4. Vol. 1, p. 81-116.

SANTA MARIA, Nicolau de - Chronica da Ordem dos Conegos Regrantes do Patriarcha S. Agostinho. Lisboa: na Officina de Ioam da Costa, 1668.

SIMÕES, J. M. dos Santos - Azulejaria em Portugal no século XVII: tomo I – tipologia. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1971.

SOTOMAYOR-PIZARRO, J. A. de - Linhagens medievais portuguesas: genealogias e estratégias: 1279-1325. Porto: Universidade do Porto, 1997.

SOUSA, Bernardo de Vasconcelos e, coord. - Ordens religiosas em Portugal: das origens a Trento: guia histórico. Lisboa: Livros Horizonte, 2005.

Downloads